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Geogrpahy   Bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north.
 In the northeast is the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir, bounded by Afghanistan, China and India. Pakistan comprises distinct regions. The northern highlands – the Hindu Kush – are rugged and mountainous; the Indus Valley is a flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region, eventually joining the Indus River and flowing south to the Makran coast; Sindh is bounded on the east by the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch, and on the west by the Kirthar Range; the Baluchistan Plateau is an arid tableland encircled by mountains.


796,096 sq km (307,374 sq miles)
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Land Boundries
total: 6,774 km

border countries

 Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Geographic Coordinate
30 00 N, 70 00 E

150,694,740 (July 2003 est.)

Province  Population


NWFP 13.54 (in million)
NATA / FATA 2.30
Punjab 55.50
Sindh 23.0
Balochistan 5.0
Islamabad 0.7

Population Density
187.2 per sq km.

Population: 724,500 (2006).

At the junction of Central, East and South Asia.

Thar Sindh
Cholistan Punjab
Thal Punjab


Northern Areas of Pakistan:
The Northern Areas border the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan to the northwest, the Xinjiang territory of China to the northeast, the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast, the region of Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir to the southeast and the North-West Frontier Province to the west. The harsh beauty of the high valleys in northern Pakistan evokes strong emotion in visitors. Bright green meadows high up on mountain slopes look from a distance like mossy pillows. Stone and clay houses sit on the rises. Alleys of tall poplars and crowds of apricot trees separate the houses.Villages are like hanging gardens in the middle of a jagged mountain landscape.

The region is home to some of the world's highest mountain ranges — the main ranges are the Karakoram and the western Himalayas. The Pamir mountains are to the north, and the Hindu Kush lies to the west. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 and Nanga Parbat, one of the most feared mountains in the world.The population consists of many diverse linguistic, ethnic and religious groups due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains. Urdu is the lingua franca of the region, understood by most inhabitants. The Shina language (with several dialects) is the language of 40% of the population, spoken mainly in Gilgit, throughout Diamer, and some parts of Ghizer. The Balti language, a sub-dialect of Ladakhi and part of Tibetan language group is spoken by the population of Baltistan. Minor languages spoken in the area include Wakhi spoken in upper Hunza, and some villages in Ghizer, while Khowar is the major language of Ghizer. Burushaski is an isolated language spoken in Hunza, Nagar, Yasin (where Khowar is also spoken), some parts of Gilgit and some villages of Punyal. Another interesting language is Domaaki, spoken by the musician clans of the region.
The Northern Areas are divided into six districts[1] in two regions: the two Baltistan districts of Skardu and Ghangche, and the four Gilgit districts of Astore, Diamer, Ghizer and Gilgit. The main political centres are the towns of Gilgit, and Skardu.


The province of Balochistan (or Balochistan) of Pakistan contains roughly the part of Balochistan that falls within the borders of present-day Pakistan. Neighboring regions are Iranian Balochistan to the west, Afghanistan and Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan to the north and Punjab and Sindh to the east. To the south is the Arabian Sea.
Balochistan is geographically the largest of the four provinces at 347,190 km˛, but has the smallest population: approximately 6.3 million in 1994. The population density is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water.
The southern region is known as Makran. A region in the centre of the province is known as Kalat.
The capital city is Quetta, located in the most densly populated district in the northeast of the province. Quetta is situated in a river valley near the border with Afghanistan, with a road to Kandahar in the northwest.
Balochistan was the site of the earliest known farming settlements in south Asia, the earliest of which was Mehrgarh dated at 6500 BC. Parts of Balochistan were held by Oman as late as the 1950s, but they were eventually turned over to Pakistan. Included in these areas is the coastal city of Gwadar where the Pakistani government is undertaking a large project with Chinese help to build a large port. This is being done partially to provide the Pakistani Navy with another base, and to reduce Pakistan's reliance on Karachi, which currently is the only major port.

To the north of the Punjab is the NWFP (North West Frontier Province) and the Federal capital area of Islamabad. To the north east is the Azad Kashmir. To its east and south is India (Indian Punjab & Rajasthan). To the south west is the province of Sindh. To the west is Balochistan Province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan. According to 1998 census, the population of the Province is 7, 25, 85,000. The population density is 353 persons per square kilometer as compared to the national figure of 164. The Province of Punjab comprises eight Administrative Divisions and 34 districts. It extends over an area of 2,05,345 square kilometers (97,192 square miles) which is 25.8 percent of the total area of Pakistan. It contains several major cities of the country: Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan and Gujranwala.
The province is predominantly on level plain. There are, however, some mountainous and hilly areas in the northwest and extreme southwest. There is also a plateau adjacent to the mountains known as the Potohar plateau and a desert belt in the south eastern part known as Cholistan.
All the major rivers of the country namely Indus, Jhelum, Chanab, Ravi, & Sutlaj flow through this province. They originate from the Himalayas and pass from North West to south west. They are primeval in nature and the volume of water increases in summer after monsoon rains, resulting sometimes in floods.
In religion, the province is almost entirely Muslim, with a small Christian minority. Punjabi is the mother tongue of 90 percent of the population. The main language used in writing is Urdu, followed by English. The major ethnic groups are the Jat, Rajput, Arain, Gujar and Awan.

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP):
commonly known as Sarhad, is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns and various other groups. Neighbouring regions include Afghanistan to the west and north, and the Northern Areas and Kashmir to the northeast and east. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas form a buffer between the NWFP and Afghanistan. Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory are to the south and east. The principal language is Pashto and the provincial capital is Peshawar. Some Pashtuns refer to the province as Pakhtunkhwa which means 'Land of the Pashtuns' in Pashto.
It covers an area of 74,521 sq. km. According to the 1998 census, the total population of N.W.F.P. was approximately 14 million out of whom 52% are males and 48% females. The density of population is 187 per sq. km and the intercensal change of population is of about 30 percent. Geographically the province could be divided into two zones: the northern one extending from the ranges of the Hindukush to the borders of Peshawar basin; and the southern one extending from Peshawar to the Derajat basin. The northern zone is cold and snowy in winters with heavy rainfall and pleasant summers with the exception of Peshawar basin which is hot in summer and cold in winter. It has moderate rainfall. The southern zone is raid with hot summers and relatively cold winters and scantly rainfall. Its climate varies from very cold (Chitral in the north) to very hot in places like D.I. Khan.
Its snow-capped peaks and lush green valleys of unusual beauty attract tourists and mountaineers from far and wide while its art and architecture no less known than the historic Khyber Pass. Once the cradle of Gandhara civilization, the area is now known for its devout Muslims who jealously guard their religion and culture and the way of life which they have been following for centuries.

Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 km from north to south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 km˛. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus river.
Karachi became capital of Sindh in 1936, in place of the traditional capitals of Hyderabad and Thatta. Other important cities include Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, ShahdadKot,Kamber Khan,,Dadu,Sehwan,MirPur Khas,Warah,Larkano, Shahdadpur, Nawabshah, Shikarpur,Khairpur,Nawabshah,Kashmor,Gudu,UmerKot,Thar, and Khairpur



































































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